What’s up or Difficulties with English 3

Well, it’s confusion between different third forms of the verb hang. There are several pairs or groups of English verbs which are often mixed up because of similar spellings and/or pronunciations of their forms.

lie (1) = to say or write something that you know is not true
lie1 – lied – lied
My new girlfriend lied about her age. You have lied to me several times. I don’t trust you anymore.
Note also the progressive form: lying
You could see from her face that she was lying.

lie (2) = to be or put yourself in a flat position so that you are not standing or sitting
lie – lay – lain
I was tired after the party so I just lay in bed all Sunday. The body may have lain in the forest for many months. The cat was lying asleep by the fireplace.

lay = to put somebody or something in a particular position
lay – laid – laid
I got undressed and laid my clothes on the bed.
The progressive form is laying. I’m laying my books on the desk so that I can sort them out.
The verb lay has several more meanings, e.g. people lay the table before a meal; birds, insects and fish lay eggs; you can lay money on a football match (to make a bet on the result), etc.

Be careful with the pronunciation: lie [lai], lay [lei].

rise = to come or go upwards; to get into a standing position (+ several more meanings)
rise – rose – risen
The audience rose to cheer the actors. The river has risen by three metres.
raise = to lift or move something to a higher level; to increase the amount or level of something; to collect money (+ other meanings)
raise2 – raised – raised
John raised his hand and asked the teacher a question. We have raised3 500 euros for charity.
rouse = to wake somebody up
rouse4 – roused – roused
My mobile roused me from a deep sleep at 5 a.m. Our dog was roused by the burglars.

Again, be careful with the pronunciation: rise [raiz], raise [reiz], rouse [rauz]

arise = to happen, to occur, to start to exist
arise5 – arose – arisen
A terrible storm arose during the night. A serious problem has arisen, which will take time to solve.

arouse = to make somebody have a particular feeling or attitude; to waken, to excite, to make you feel more active
arouse6 – aroused – aroused
His strange behaviour aroused suspicions that he had been taking drugs. The citizens were aroused by the rumours of repeated murders in the bad neighbourhood.

saw = to use a saw (a tool with a long blade with teeth) to cut something
saw7 – sawed – sawn/sawed
I sawed the plank in two. The tree had to be sawn down.

sew = to make or attach something by using a needle and thread
sew8 – sewed – sewn/sewed
My grandmother sewed all her clothes. I have sewn the button on for you.

Sow = to plant seeds in the ground to grow
Sow9 – sowed – sown/sowed
We sowed some vegetable seeds last weekend. The fi elds around have been sown with maize.

Please note the pronunciation: saw [so:], sew [sәu/sou], sow [sәu/sou]. As you can see, the verbs sew and sow are homophones (have the same pronunciation but diff erent spellings and meanings). The irregular third forms sawn, sewn, sown are more common in British English, whereas the regular forms are especially used in American English.

wind [wind] = to make somebody unable to breathe for a short time
wind10 – winded – winded [windid] He was winded by a blow to his stomach.

wind [waind] = to wrap or twist something; to make a clock, watch, etc. work by turning a knob

wind11 – wound – wound [waund] The clock went for two days after I wound it.

wound [wu:nd] = to injure a part of the body using a weapon

wound12 – wounded – wounded [wu:ndid]
A lot of soldiers were wounded in the battle.

fall = to drop down from a higher level to a lower level; to suddenly stop standing accidentally
fall – fell – fallen
The boy slipped on ice and fell. Some of the books had fallen onto the floor.

fell = to cut down (a tree)
fell13 – felled – felled
How many trees have you felled today?

find = to discover somebody or something by chance or after searching
find – found – found
I found Jane sitting in the church.

found = to start something, e.g. an institution, an organization, etc.
found – founded – founded
The college was founded in 1965.

Finally, the verb we started the article with:
hang (1) = to attach something so that the lower part is loose; to be attached in this way
hang – hung – hung
I hung my coat up and went into the kitchen.

hang (2) = to kill a person by tying a rope around their neck and allowing them to drop; to be killed in this way
hang – hanged – hanged
In the past people were hanged for serious crimes.

Now you see that the student’s sentence should have read as follows: ‘A picture of my avourite singer is hung on the wall.’

Daniel Miklošovič

Vocabulary:1klamať – lhát; 2zdvihnúť – zvednout; 3vyzbierať – vysbírat; 4zobudiť – vzbudit; 5vzniknúť – vzniknout; 6vyburcovať, vzbudiť (záujem) – vyburcovat, vzbudit (zájem); 7/so:/ píliť – pilovat; 8/sou/ šiť – šít; 9/s∂u/ siať – sít; 10vyraziť dych – vyrazit dech; 11natiahnuť – natáhnout (hodiny); 12zraniť – zranit; 13postínať – pokácet